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Annotated Bibliography

The following resource materials provide information that may be of interest to those contemplating or implementing a lead in gasoline phase out. ILMC welcomes suggstions for additional materials to be included in the bibliography.

Title "Costs and Benefits of Reducing Lead in Gasoline"
Author Joel Schwartz, Hugh Pitcher, Ronnie Levin, Bart Ostro and Albert L. Nichols
Institution US Environmental Protection Agency
Pages 387
Date February 1985
Abstract In conjunction with the US EPA rulemaking to reduce the amount of lead in gasoline to 0.10 gplg, this study assessed the overall costs and monetotrized benefits of reducing lead.
Title "Phasing Out Lead from Gasoline: World-Wide Experience and Policy Implications"
Author Lovei, Magda
Institution World Bank
Pages 44
Date August 1996
Abstract This report reviews the current experience with lead phase out and the policy implications. It highlights the six elements of an effective phase out strategy.
Title "The Benefits of Unleaded Petrol"
Author Mowle, Michael G.
Institution New South Wales State Pollution Control Commission
Pages 14 plus Figures and Tables
Date September 1981
Abstract This paper thoroughly reviews the benefits of a switch to unleaded fuel on emissions, fuel economy and maintenance. It concludes that significant net cost savings will result from the switch.
Title "Role of Lead Antiknocks in Modern Gasolines"
Author Bettoney, Pahnke &
Institution Society of Automotive Engineers
Pages 23
Date 1971
Abstract The role of lead antiknocks is discussed with particular emphasis on exhaust emissions, engine cleanliness, valve seat recession, octane requirements and octane requirement increase.
Title "The Elimination of Lead From Gasoline"
Author Thomas, V.M
Journal Annual Review of Energy and the Environment
Volume 20
Pages 24
Date 1995
Abstract This paper reviews the reasons for phasing lead out of gasoline, the then current status, the costs and the concerns with vehicles with soft valve seats.
Title "The Advantages of Removing Lead From Gasoline and Using Catalytic Converters to Control Vehicle Exhaust Pollution"
Author Walsh, M.P.
Pages 44
Date October 1983
Abstract This paper reviews the impact of unleaded gasoline and catalytic converters on vehicle emissions.
Title "Global Opportunities for Reducing The Use of Leaded Gasoline"
Author (IOMC), Inter-Organization Programme For The Sound Management of Chemicals
Pages 59
Date September 1998
Abstract This report provides a brief overview of the health consequences of lead exposure, the importance of leaded gasoline as a source of this exposure, and how to overcome the potential barriers to eliminating its use.
How To Phase Out Lead In Gasoline
Title "Issue Paper: Phasing Lead Out Of Gasoline The Experience With Different Policy Approaches in Different Countries"
Author Walsh, Michael P.
Institution United Nations Environment Program/Organization For Economic Cooperation & Development
Date 1999
Abstract Various approaches to phasing out the use of leaded gasoline are reviewed and conclusions drawn regarding the respective merits of each.
Title "Harmonization of Fuels Specifications in Latin America and the Caribbean"
Author Alconsult
Institution World Bank
Pages 51 plus Annexes
Date January 1998
Abstract Specifications of key parameters for gasoline, diesel, LPG and light fuel oils are proposed. Issues considered when developing the specifications include investment requirements, effects on current vehicle fleet, current inter regional trade, and on air quality, as well as sensitive geopolitical issues such as national supply security and the perspective of smaller/older refineries in some countries.
Energy Impacts
Title "The rational utilization of fuels in private transport (rufit) - extrapolation to unleaded gasoline case"
Institution CONCAWE
Pages 23
Date August 1980
Abstract The purpose of the RUFIT study was to look at the gasoline engined motor vehicle and European refineries as a single integrated system with the Research Octane Number as the link, taking into account the range of possible restrictions on the use of lead additives.
Title "Assessment of the energy balances and economic consequences of the reduction and elimination of lead in gasoline"
Institution CONCAWE
Pages 49
Date December 1983
Abstract This report gives details of a study carried out at the request of the EEC Working Group: Evolution of Regulations - Global Approach (ERGA) to predict the optimum octane number for unleaded gasoline which will minimize total energy consumption.
Title "A Before and After Study of the Change to Unleaded Gasoline - Test Results from EPA and Other Cycles"
Author Harry C. Watson, Eric E. Milkins, Steve Lansell and Ken Challenger
Institution University of Melbourne
Report Number SAE # 900150
Pages 23
Date February 26, 1990
Abstract This report reviews the real world impact of a switch to unleaded fuel on emissions and fuel consumption under a variety of driving conditions.
Health Concerns With Lead
Title Lead In the Americas: A Call for Action
Pages 210
Date 1996
Publisher Committee to Reduce Lead Exposure In The Americas, Board of International Health Institute of Medicine, in collaboration with The National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
Editor C. P. Howson, Mauricio Hernandez-Avila and David P. Rall
Series Editor Christopher P. Howson; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Rall, David P.
Abstract This report summarizes a three day conference which was held in Washington, DC during the period from 8-10 May, 1995.Chapter 1 summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the symposium participants for the prevention of lead poisoning in the Americas. Chapter 2 describes the history of public health concerns about lead poisoning and the voluntary and regulatory steps taken to reduce human lead exposures. Chapter 3 provides summaries of the plenary sessions presentations and Chapter 4 summarizes the findings of the six working groups.
Title "Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children
Author Center for Disease Control, US
Institution US department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control
Pages 105
Date October 1991
Abstract This is the fourth revision of the statement on Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children by the Centers for Disease Control.
Title Human Exposure to Lead (Series Title: Human Exposure Assessment Series)
Author WHO
Pages 216
Date 1992
Publisher United Nations Environment Programme, United States Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization
Abstract This text was prepared under the WHO/UNEP Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Programme and forms the report on the HEAL Coordinators meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand from 16 to 20 November 1992.
Title "Risk Reduction Monograph No. 1: Lead"
Author Development, Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Institution Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Pages 277
Date 1993
Abstract The main purposes of this document on lead risk reduction are: (1) to provide a summary of information regarding releases of lead to the environment, the ensuing environmental and human exposures, and the way OECD member countries and countries with observer status perceive the risks associated with exposure to lead; (2) to describe the actions those countries and industry have taken, or contemplate taking, to reduce risks associated with exposure to lead, and (3) to identify the benefits, in terms of protection of human health and the environment, that could result from taking such actions, to the extent that information is available.
Title Environmental Health Criteria 165: Inorganic Lead
Volume 165
Pages 300
Publisher United Nations Environment Programme, International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization
Editor Safety, International Programme on Chemical
Abstract This monograph focuses on the risks to human health associated with exposure to lead and inorganic lead compounds.
Title "Automotive Emissions of Ethylene Dibromide"
Author Sigsby, Dropkin, Bradow and Lang
Institution US EPA & Northrop Services
Pages 17
Date June 1982
Abstract Ethylene dibromide (EDB) is commonly used as a scavenger to prevent lead deposit build up on spark plugs. This paper presents test data from vehicles operating on leaded gasoline with EDB. Health effects of EDB are also reviewed.
Gasoline As A Source of Lead Exposure
Title "Isotopic Lead Experiment: A Dynamic Analysis of the Isotopic Lead Experiment Results"
Author Fantechi, A. Colombo and R.
Institution Commission of the European Communities, General Directorate XII
Pages 26
Date October 1983
Abstract This report studies by mathematical modeling the dynamic evolution of the blood lead isotopic ratio (206 PB/207 Pb) of three groups of subjects from Turin and from near and far countries. Through the comparison of the experimental evolutions with those given by the model, it aims at ascertaining whether an analysis of all the blood lead isotopic ratio data covering the 1975-1979 ILER period could support the percentages of local petrol lead impacting on blood estimated in the ILE report.
Title "The Relationship Between Gasoline Lead Usage and Blood Lead Levels in Americans: A Statistical Analysis of the NHANES II Data"
Author ICF Incorporated, under contract to the US EPA
Institution US EPA
Pages 53
Date December 1982
Abstract The results presented in this report were obtained by applying sophisticated statistical techniques to extensive sets of data. Several regression models were fit to the more than 10,000 observations on blood lead levels gathered during the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II).
Valve Seat Recession
Title "Effect of Low Levels of Lead and Alternative Additives To Lead On Engines Designed To Operate on Leaded Gasoline"
Author Allsup, Jerry R.
Institution United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Mobile Sources
Pages 190
Date March 1987
Abstract This report describes testing operations to determine the effect of using leaded gasoline, low-lead gasoline, unleaded gasoline and gasoline with additives in engines designed for leaded gasoline.
Title "Report to the President and Congress on the Need for Leaded Gasoline on the Farm"
Author Agency, United States Environmental Protection
Pages 52 Plus Appendices
Date October 1988
Abstract This report carefully reviews the need for leaded gasoline to prevent valve seat recession in farm equipment operating under sustained heavy loads. It also review alternative strategies to minimize or prevent any valve damage risk.
Title Fourth Meeting of the Task Force on the Phase-out of Lead in Gasoline - Final Report Presenting the Results of the Car Park Study"
Author Agency, Danish Environmental Protection
Institution Danish EPA
Pages 26 plus Appendix
Date January 1998
Abstract This report focuses on the question of whether vehicles produced in the Central and Eastern European countries can operate satisfactorily on unleaded gasoline.
Title "Prevention of Valve-Seat Recession in European Markets"
Author J.S. McArragher, L.J. Clarke and H. Paesler
Institution Shell
Pages 9 plus Tables & Figures
Date May 1993
Abstract This report reviews both published and in house data on valve seat recession to examine the effect of engine operating conditions, the minimum lead content necessary to prevent valve seat recession and the effectiveness of alternative additives.
Title "Effects of Using Unleaded and Low Lead Gasoline, and Non Lead Additives on Agricultural Engines Designed For Leaded Gasoline"
Author Agriculture, US Environmental Protection Agency & US Department of
Pages 80
Date April 1987
Abstract This report assesses the need for lead or other additives to protect valves in engines with a heavy duty cycle and which had been designed for use with leaded gasoline.
Title "Durability test of catalyst vehicles run on unleaded gasoline with sodium additive."
Author Laveskog, Anders
Institution Motortestcenter
Pages 10 plus Appendices
Date June 1992
Abstract This report reviews the experience with the use of a sodium based additive, designed to prevent valve seat recession with unleaded fuel. The particular focus is the impact on catalyst deterioration over extended mileage.
Title "An Engine's Definition of Unleaded Gasoline"
Author Doelling, Ralph P.
Institution Society of Automotive Engineers
Pages 8
Date October 26-29, 1971
Abstract An engine program designed to investigate the effect of varying gasoline lead levels upon changes in hydrocarbon exhaust emissions levels resulting from combustion chamber deposits and valve recession was extended to very low lead levels. The results of this program, define the amount of lead a fuel may contain before lead deposit effects on emissions are observed and valve recession problems are eliminated as falling between 0.04-0.07 gm/gal.
Title "A Review of Worldwide Approaches to the Use of Additives to prevent Exhaust Valve Seat Recession"
Author Russell, M.W. Vincent and T.J.
Institution Associated Octel Company Limited
Pages 17 plus Figures and Tables
Date January 1998
Abstract This report reviews the problem of valve seat recession and the use of fuel additives to control it.
Older Vehicle Emissions Control Options
Title Issue Paper: Older Gasoline Fueled Vehicles in Developing Countries or in Economies in Transition Their Importance and the Policy Options For Addressing Them
Author Walsh, Michael P.
Institution United Nations Environment Program/Organization For Economic Cooperation and Development
Date 1999
Abstract Older vehicles are a disproportionate source of vehicle related air pollution in many countries. This study reviews the potential of many strategies, such as Inspection and Maintenance, Mandatory Scrappage, Retrofit, Fuel Conversion, etc., to reduce this excess pollution.

International Lead Management Center, Inc.
2525 Meridian Parkway, Suite 100, Research Triangle Park, NC 27713 USA
Telephone: ++1 919-287-1872 Facsimile: ++1-919-361-1957